Kevin Beason's Homepage > Software > Pane


Kevin Beason's Ray Tracing Page

This is the project page for Pane, a physically based renderer (global illumination ray tracer). Pane is a work in progress. See below for the latest images. Basic features are:

  • Photon mapping and Monte-Carlo path tracing
  • Reads Inventor / VRML 1.0 files
  • Octree-R ray-triangle intersection acceleration
  • HDR Image based lighting, depth of field, irradiance caching, glare, bump-mapping, texture-mapping, animation support, etc.



Thank you:

  • David Banks my graduate advisor and mentor, for teaching and support
  • Josh Grant for the original idea of using Inventor to read the scene file. Parsing a scene file was the most frightening aspect and OIV does it for free.
  • Chris Baker for the idea of using an octree, which got me started on this whole shebang
  • Chuck Mason for teaching me how to use STL and debug with gdb
  • Chris Weigle, for a bug report
  • Henrik Jensen for the Photon mapping algorithm and ideas presented in his invaluable book
  • Peter Shirley for his essential book on ray tracing
  • The many authors of papers I referred to
  • FSU, including all the systems operators I annoyed regularly.
  • NSF

I would also like to thank the following students at other universities who have also implemented Photon Mapping, and whose websites were inspiring:

Other inspiring renderers:

Features implemented so far

  • Read geometry from regular Inventor (VRML) files
  • Interactive scene viewer, renderer
  • Command line renderer
  • Octree for fast ray-triangle intersection
  • Recursive ray tracing
  • Reflection, refraction (with attenuation)
  • Writes PPM image format
  • Tone mapping
  • Can set image size, number of samples, level of recursion
  • Area and point lights
  • Physically based lighting using SI metrics of meters and watts
  • Importance sampling multiple luminaires
  • Monte Carlo path tracing (slow global illumination solution)
  • Separate global and caustic photon maps
  • Photon mapping using algorithm described in Jensen's book (4 component, faster global illumination solution)
  • Automatic maximum search radius for photon map irradiance estimate
  • Precomputed irradiance
  • Quasi-random sequences for sampling, path tracing, emission (optional)
  • Normal, color, emission, shininess, transparency interpolation on triangles
  • Texture mapping with bilinear interpolation and hermite smoothing
  • Depth of field
  • HDR Image Based Lighting (MCPT and Photon Mapping)
  • Beer's law
  • Participating media (single scattering only)
  • Glare simulation (both Shirley and Nakamae)
  • Bump mapping
  • Fresnel reflection (metallic)

Download Source code

  • pane-1.272.tar.gz Latest snapshot.
    • ...
  • pane-1.194.tar.gz Should work on Fedora Core 4, Mac OS X 10.4, Ubuntu 7.10. New in this version:
    • --compressEstimate for shrinking photon gather sphere vertically.
    • --depthImage for creating a depth image in .pfm format.
    • Three tools to convert .pfm files: pfmtohdr, pfmtoexr, pfmtopng
    • Tons of bug fixes.

  • pane-1.127.tar.gz Works on Redhat 7.3, Fedora Core 4, Mac OS X 10.4. Adds several features: efficient full global illumination with HDR image based lighting, simulated glare, Beer's law attenuation, importance sampling indirect illumination, importance sampling the photon map

    License: I am seeking to release all source under a free license (probably GPL) but currently my ability to do so is in question by university policy. Currently the license is "unknown". More to come.


Below are images rendered with Pane, in reverse chronological order. The format is in the style of a diary. The top shows the latest developments while the bottom shows the very first images.

Don't forget to look at more images on Page 2.

Caustic GI test scene

Emission GI test scene

Geometry GI test scene

Huge light GI test scene

Shadow GI test scene

Bump-mapping test

Participating media test image

Model courtesy Yoshihito Yagi

High-dynamic range image-based lighting using
importance sampling (Pharr) and photon mapping.
5 minutes

Model courtesy Derrin Proctor

Image-based lighting augmented reality.
Model courtesy Derrin Proctor

Illustration of compositing process

Photopic glare test

Scotopic glare test.
Street light model courtesy (web...?)

Sponza Atrium with sky, sunlight, sunbeam.
Model courtesy Marko Dabrovic

Boat wake image
Beer's law, caustic, high dynamic range image based lighting using importance sampling and photon mapping.
Data courtesy Mark Sussman


Features added:

  1. Image based lighting now works with photon mapping (full global illumination)
  2. Bump mapping
  3. Glare (photopic, scotopic, mesopic)
  4. Importance sampling the photon map with importons
  5. Beer's law
  6. Fresnel metallic reflection
  7. Octree-R to solve "teapot in a stadium" problem
  8. New and improved area light, effortlessly handles huge lights
  9. Single scattering participating medium (uniform)
  10. Indirect illumination importance sampling

<!--#include file='lab.desc' --> <!--#include file='buddha_glass.desc' --> <!--#include file='xmas.desc' -->
<!--#include file='big_lab18.desc' --> <!--#include file='nbone10.desc' --> <!--#include file='face_redwater.desc' -->
<!--#include file='face_backlit.desc' --> <!--#include file='face_tiles.desc' --> <!--#include file='cropface.desc' -->
<!--#include file='brad_lapr1.desc' --> <!--#include file='brad_lapr_far.desc' --> <!--#include file='brad_lapr_high.desc' -->
<!--#include file='brad_lapr_low.desc' --> <!--#include file='brad_vinals.desc' --> <!--#include file='brad_filo.desc' -->
<!--#include file='bigMoon.desc' --> <!--#include file='jesse5.desc' --> <!--#include file='jesse4.desc' -->
<!--#include file='dendrite.desc' --> <!--#include file='dirt_combined.desc' --> <!--#include file='nucleon_combined.desc' -->
<!--#include file='ring.desc' --> <!--#include file='xmas.desc' -->


Most of these images were rendered by other researchers using Pane. Click on any image to see a larger version and image credits.

Vislab model by Yoshihito Yagi
3 hours

7 hours

7.4 hours
20,000 samples (MCPT)

13.3 hours
20,000 samples (MCPT)

Features added:

  • Very basic implementation of image based lighting using HDR images
  • Depth of field
  • More correct tone mapping
The code with these new features will be released at a later date.

11 minutes
SGI Altex 350
(8 Itanium2 64-bit 1.5 GHz processors)

11 minutes
SGI Altex 350
(8 Itanium2 64-bit 1.5 GHz processors)

42 minutes
Dual Xeon 3.0 GHz

16 minutes
Dual Xeon 3.0 GHz

Monte-Carlo Path Tracing
7.5 hours (3000 paths/pixel)

Monte-Carlo Path Tracing with explicit direct lighting
4.5 hours (1000 paths/pixel)

Direct Photon Map Visualization
7 seconds (1 sample/pixel)

Photon Mapping
5.3 minutes (4 samples/pixel)
Times are for a Dual Intel Xeon 3.0GHz machine

Features added:

  • Monte Carlo Path Tracing
  • Monte Carlo Path Tracing with explicit lighting
  • caustic/reflection/direct lighting intensity bug fix
  • automatic multi-processor support (no more -jN)
  • automatic number of lightsamples (no more --lightsamples=100)
  • made scene more like Dr. Jensen's
  • fixed direct lighting scalefactor

Older Images (Page 2)


James Arvo.
Stratified sampling of spherical triangles.
In SIGGRAPH '95: Proceedings of the 22nd annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, pages 437-438, New York, NY, USA, 1995. ACM Press.

D. R. Baum, H. E. Rushmeire, and J. M. Winget.
Improving radiosity solutions through the use of analytically determined form-factors.
In SIGGRAPH '89: Proceedings of the 16th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, pages 325-334, New York, NY, USA, 1989. ACM Press.

Per H. Christensen.
Faster photon map global illumination.
Journal of Graphic Tools, 4(3):1-10, 2000.

I. Friedel and A. Keller.
Fast generation of randomized lowdiscrepancy point sets.
In H. Niederreiter, K. Fang, and F. Hickernell, editors, Monte Carlo and Quasi-Monte Carlo Methods 2000, pages 257-273. Springer, 2000.

Andrew S. Glassner.
Space subdivision for fast ray tracing.
IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 4(10):15-22, 1984.

Henrik Wann Jensen.
Importance Driven Path Tracing Using the Photon Map.
In P. M. Hanrahan and W. Purgathofer, editors, Rendering Techniques '95 (Proceedings of the Sixth Eurographics Workshop on Rendering), pages 326-335, New York, NY, 1995. Springer-Verlag.

Henrik Wann Jensen.
Realistic image synthesis using photon mapping.
A. K. Peters, Ltd., 2001.

A. Keller.
Strictly deterministic sampling methods in computer graphics.
mental images Technical Report, 2001.

T. Kollig and A. Keller.
Efficient multidimensional sampling.
Computer Graphics Forum, 21(3):557-563, September 2002.

Thomas Kollig and Alexander Keller.
Efficient bidirectional path tracing by randomized quasi-monte carlo integration.
In Monte Carlo and Quasi-Monte Carlo Methods 2000, pages 290-305, New York, NY, 2001. Springer-Verlag.

Tomas Moller and Ben Trumbore.
Fast, minimum storage ray-triangle intersection.
Journal of Graphic Tools, 2(1):21-28, 1997.

Eihachiro Nakamae, Kazufumi Kaneda, Takashi Okamoto, and Tomoyuki Nishita.
A lighting model aiming at drive simulators.
In SIGGRAPH '90: Proceedings of the 17th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, pages 395-404, New York, NY, USA, 1990. ACM Press.

Art B. Owen.
Monto carlo extension of quasi-monte carlo.
In Proceedings of the 30th conference on Winter simulation, pages 571-578. IEEE Computer Society Press, 1998.

Art B. Owen.
Quasi-monte carlo sampling.
In SIGGRAPH 2003 Course Notes 44. SIGGRAPH, 2003.

Matt Pharr and Greg Humphreys.
Physically Based Rendering : From Theory to Implementation.
Morgan Kaufmann, August 2004.

Christophe Schlick.
A Customizable Reflectance Model for Everyday Rendering.
In Fourth Eurographics Workshop on Rendering, number 93 RW in EG, pages 73-84, Paris, France, 1993.

Christophe Schlick.
An inexpensive brdf model for physically-based rendering.
Comput. Graph. Forum, 13(3):233-246, 1994.

Peter Shirley.
Nonuniform random point sets via warping.
In David Kirk, editor, Graphics Gems III, pages 80-83. Academic Press, Boston, 1992.

Peter Shirley and Changyaw Wang.
Direct Lighting Calculation by Monte Carlo Integration.
In P. Brunet and F. W. Jansen, editors, Photorealistic Rendering in Computer Graphics (Proceedings of the Second Eurographics Workshop on Rendering), pages 54-59, New York, NY, 1994. Springer-Verlag.

Peter Shirley, Changyaw Wang, and Kurt Zimmerman.
Monte Carlo techniques for direct lighting calculations.
ACM Transactions on Graphics, 15(1):1-36, 1996.

Brian Smits and Henrik Wann Jensen.
Global illumination test scenes.
Technical Report UUCS-00-013, University of Utah, 2000.

John M. Snyder and Alan H. Barr.
Ray tracing complex models containing surface tessellations.
In SIGGRAPH '87: Proceedings of the 14th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, pages 119-128, New York, NY, USA, 1987. ACM Press.

Greg Spencer, Peter Shirley, Kurt Zimmerman, and Donald P. Greenberg.
Physically-based glare effects for digital images.
In SIGGRAPH '95: Proceedings of the 22nd annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, pages 325-334, New York, NY, USA, 1995. ACM Press.

Changyaw Allen Wang.
The direct lighting computation in global illumination methods.
PhD thesis, Indiana University, 1994.

Gregory J. Ward and Paul Heckbert.
Irradiance Gradients.
In Third Eurographics Workshop on Rendering, pages 85-98, Bristol, UK, 1992.

Gregory J. Ward, Francis M. Rubinstein, and Robert D. Clear.
A ray tracing solution for diffuse interreflection.
In Proceedings of the 15th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, pages 85-92. ACM Press, 1988.

Alan H. Watt, Mark Watt, and Alan Watt.
Advanced Animation and Rendering Techniques: Theory and Practice.
ACM Press, 1992.

Kyu-Young Whang, Ju-Won Song, Ji-Woong Chang, Ji-Yun Kim, Wan-Sup Cho, Chong-Mok Park, and Il-Yeol Song.
Octree-r: An adaptive octree for efficient ray tracing.
IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 1(4):343-349, 1995.

G. Wyszecki and W. Stiles.
Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae.
Wiley, New York, 1982.
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